Shame and Insult in Anatolia Luvo-Hittite zammurāi-

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Alexander Nikolaev



The origin of the verb („)zammurāi- (MH+) is unknown. The goal of this paper is to 1) clarify the verb’s meaning and 2) its derivational morphology, 3) discuss its purported etymological connection with Lyc. zum̃ me ̃ / zum̃ mã and Luv. zamman-, and 4) propose an Indo-European etymology for the root, which, if correct, will make („)zammurāi- relevant for the continued debate about reflexes of Indo-European dorsal stops in Luvic languages.

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