In general, follow the Chicago Manual of Style.

1 Footnotes and Bibliographies:

1.1 Footnotes and bibliographies must accord with one of the following models:

1.1.1 Humanities format

Footnotes, Book

     1P. Q. Author, The Book I Wrote (Place: Publisher, Year), 109.

     [“p.” and “pp.” are not used]

Footnotes, Article

     1P. Q. Author, “The Article I Wrote,” JAOS 108.3 (1988): 456.

     [a colon separates the volume number from the page reference]

Footnotes, Collected Papers

     1P. Q. Author, “The Paper I Wrote,” in The Symposium to Which I Contributed, ed. John P. Doe and Q. E. Dee (Place: Publisher, Year), 12.

     [“p.” and “pp.” are not used; “ed.” stands for “edited by”; symposium title precedes editor’s name]

Bibliography, Book

     Author, P. Q., and John Doe. The Book We Wrote. Series Information. Place: Publisher, Year.

     [first author’s surname precedes; periods replace commas; no parentheses]

Bibliography, Article

     Author, P. Q. “The Article I Wrote.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 108 (1988): 409–19.

     [or: JAOS 108: etc.; “pp.” not used]

Bibliography, Symposium

     Author, P. Q. “The Paper I Wrote.” In The Symposium to Which I Contributed, ed. John P. Doe and Q. E. Dee. Pp. 10–29. Place: Publisher, Year.

     [“pp.” is used; page numbers precede facts of publication]

1.1.2 Social Sciences Format

Bibliography, Book

     Author, P. Q.; Jane Dee; and John Doe. Year. The Book We Wrote. Place: Publisher.

     [year follows authors’ names]

Bibliography, Article

     Author, P. Q. Year. The Article I Wrote. Journal of the American Oriental Society 108: 409–19.

     [no quotation marks are used]

Bibliography, Symposium

     Author, P. Q. Year. The Paper I Wrote. In The Symposium to Which I Contributed, ed. John P. Doe and Q. E. Dee. Pp. 10–29. Place: Publisher.

     [“pp.” is used]

Notes in text have the form: (Author Year) or (Author Year: 12). But if the page number only is used, “p.” or “pp.” is appropriate: (p. 12). “P.” or “pp.” may be used at any time to distinguish pages from other kinds of numerical references (tables, lines, etc.).

1.2 The major and relevant place of publication only should be listed. E.g., “Leiden: Brill”; not “Leiden, Boston, Kšln: Brill.”

1.3 In footnote citation and bibliography, abbreviate “University Press” as “Univ. Press.”

1.4 When the bibliography lists several works by a single author, his or her name should not be repeated, but replaced by “.”

1.5 “Ibid.” refers to the single work cited in the note immediately preceeding. It should not be used if more than one work is cited in the preceding note. It takes the place of the author’s name, the title of the work, and as much of the succeeding material as is identical. Ibid. may also be used in place of the name of a journal or book of essays in successive references to the same journal or book within one note. Instead of ibid., one may use an unambiguous short form (e.g., “Buck, Selected Synonyms, 293”).

1.6 “Idem” is used in place of an author’s name when successive references to several works are made within a single note. It is not used of titles or in bibliographies.

1.7 Note the distinction between “see” (or, vide: used of a supporting point)” and “cf.” (confer, compare: used of a contrasting or complementary point).

1.8 References to inclusive pages, as follows: for two-digit numbers repeat all digits [“pp. 56–58”]; for 100 or multiples thereof repeat all digits [“pp. 100–106”]; for numbers greater than 100 repeat only last two digits (or more, if necessary) [“pp. 117–19”; “1698–722”]; but do not repeat any zeroes [“pp. 103–8,” not “103–08”].

1.9 The use of footnotes in book reviews is discouraged; parenthetical references in lieu of footnotes should conform to the appropriate footnote style.

1.10 Footnotes to tables apart from text should be indicated by letters a to z, used consecutively.

1.11 The abbreviations “vol.,” “no.,” and “pt.” are normally not capitalized.

2 Quotation marks are placed generally outside sentence punctuation (i.e., American, not British, style). Exceptions are made for linguistic glosses in single quotation marks, for colons and semicolons, and for certain exclamation points and question marks.

3 The following items should normally be italicized: titles of works and periodicals; foreign terms cited in the process of inquiry. Foreign terms, however, which are employed by the author instead of translations, may be kept in roman, especially if commonly understood or frequently used [e.g., “karma,” “dharma”]. Not italicized are: books of the Bible, classes of works (e.g., “purana,” “veda”), Latin scholarly terms and abbreviations (with the single exception of “sic”). The English plural ending on foreign words is not italicized: sutras; idiosyncratic italicization, for emphasis, etc., is discouraged. Special conventions govern the transliteration of cuneiform.

4 American spelling preferences are normally adopted.

5 The two-letter postal abbreviations for the States are used only in addresses. Elsewhere, including in publication information, spell out or use the unambiguous standard forms [e.g., “Miss.” not “MS”; “Nebr.” or “Neb.” not “NE”].